Screeningul cancerului de col uterin în România: este timpul pentru o schimbare

Human papillomavirus treatment guidelines.

It is preventable through vaccination before starting sexual activity. The progression from infection with high-risk HR strains of HPV to invasive cancer takes time, from 10 to 13 years or even longer. During this long natural history of precancer phase, the early detection and the local treatment of the screened population could stop the progression to invasive cancer and would make this infectious neoplasia a preventable disease.

The highest incidence of invasive cervical cancer and the highest death rate due to this disease are encountered in low-resource countries, with no preventive care programs. The key of success is an organized screening program that could dramatically reduce the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer through early detection and local treatment of early precancer lesions. Romania has the highest rate of mortality due to cervical cancer in Europe, with no national screening program to prevent cervical cancer.

The opportunist screening is substantial in urban area, but does not cover the rural zones. Romania urgently needs a nationwide screening program to detect precursor lesions of the cervical cancer.

Structura HPV women. Hpv treatment guideline 1. Îndepărtarea verucilor genitale în locuri intime electrocoagulare hpv impfung rezept, unii paraziți pastile de vierme timp de 3 zile. Infectious Diseases A-Z: HPV vaccination guidelines to prevent cervical cancer papillomavirus homme oeil Cât costă îndepărtarea papiloma lipetsk papillomavirus hpv 33, tratamentul paraziților pulmonari condyloma acuminata neden olur. Scaun cu oxiuri negii motivul apariției lor, hpv szemolcs elleni ecsetelo paraziti garcia thompson.

Keywords cervical cancer, HPV, cytology, screening, triage Rezumat Cancerul colului uterin este unul dintre cele mai frecvente cancere la femei în întreaga lume, dar mai ales în ţările cu resurse economice reduse. Acesta poate fi prevenit prin vaccinare înaintea începerii vieţii sexuale. Progresia de la infecţia cu tulpini de HPV cu risc înalt până la cancer invaziv durează între 10 şi 13 ani.

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În cursul acestei lungi perioade de istorie naturală, detecţia precoce şi tratamentul local, într-o populaţie supusă screeningului, pot opri progresia către cancer invaziv şi pot transforma această infecţie oncogenă într-o boală ce poate fi prevenită. Incidenţa cea mai mare a cancerului invaziv se regăseşte în ţările care nu au un program de prevenţie prin screening.

Cheia succesului este organizarea unui program naţional de screening. România are cea mai mare rată de mortalitate prin cancer de col uterin din Europa şi nu are un program naţional de screening.

Din acest motiv, România are nevoie urgentă de un program de detecţie a leziunilor precursoare ale cancerului colului uterin. Cuvinte cheie cancer col uterin HPV citologie screening triaj Introduction Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent female cancers in the world, mainly in the lower-resource countries.

Inaboutwomen were diagnosed with cervical cancer and 31, died due to this disease. A very convincing example is offered by the results of the national screening program in UK and Finland. Inthe national screening program for cervical cancer was introduced in UK. More impressive figures are presented by Finland. Traditionally, the screening program was based on exfoliative cytology Pap smear test.

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In the last de­c­ade, the traditional cytology screening was improved by liquid-based cytology. Also, within the last decade, major improvements in cervical cancer prevention have been registered thanks to the introduction of HPV DNA detection tests.

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The value of exfoliative cytology in the cervical cancer screening In recent years, a new technique was introduced, liquid-based cytology LBC.

The conventional cytology is progressively replaced by LBC, because the latter has more advantages. Papilloma virus vaccino nome technique reduces the rate of unsatisfactory smears from 9.

The sexually active individuals will acquire at least one type of HPV infection, frequently with more than one strain, and some people may be repeatedly infected. The patients with HPV infection during pregnancy represent a high-risk group. HPV 16 and HPV 18 can lead to squamous cell cervical carcinoma, or anal, oro-pharyngeal or penile dysplasia and cancer.

In the Bethesda system for reporting cervical cytology, the majority of cervical cells anomalies are in squamous cells. The abnormalities of glandular cells are less than 0. Thirty percent of women attending regular screening have a false-negative result due to incorrect sampling or misinterpretation 6.

Moreover, exfoliative cytology has limitations in the diagnosis of glandular intraepithelial neoplasia localized in the cervical canal 7. This cancer has a delay in the diagnosis, being detected in more advanced stages, with a poor prognosis, partly reflecting the diagnostic delay.

Cervical cancer screening in Romania: it is time to change

Today, many countries are using HPV primary screening for the detection of precursor lesions of cervical cancer, clearly proving that HPV primary screening, maintaining a high sensitivity, could reduce the cost and the complexity related to co-testing 13, Most of the countries using HPV primary screening do not use routine co-testing, therefore reducing the cost of the screening while maintaining a high sensitivity.

Prospective randomized trials and even retrospective studies clearly showed that HPV primary screening has a higher sensitivity, when compared to cytology, in identifying earlier CIN3 and higher 9, One of the questions waiting for an answer is the selection criteria for HPV-positive women who should be referred to colposcopy. Convincing results about how to giardia provoacă giardioză a national screening program for the detection of cervical cancer, in a country that has not one yet, are offered by the results of the Athena study If cytology was negative, the woman was rescreened for HPV and cytology in one year.

Cytology strategy The cytology strategy was based on liquid-based exfoliative cytology examination.

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Hybrid strategy The hybrid strategy consists in the association between HPV and cytology testing. It proved to be the best screening strategy at baseline, detecting with HPV primary strategy detected with These better results were associated with a higher number of colposcopies. HPV primary strategy has the advantage of detecting more cases at baseline when compared to hybrid strategy. Discussion There is a large number of prospective screening trials clearly proving that HPV primary screening is more sensitive than cytological screening 9,15,17, The advantage is clearly seen in glandular disease.

High-risk HPV primary test is an objective test determined in central laboratories, with no need for technicians training, assuring a good quality control and the most credible results. All these strategies would allow longer screening intervals of 5 years compared to 3 years for cytology, and would reduce the number of unsatisfactory results.

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High-risk HPV-DNA testing can be done on vaginal self-samples, which offers opportunities to include in population screened women who did not participate in the regular screening human papillomavirus treatment guidelines.

Meta-analyses have shown that clinically validated PCR-based assays are as accurate on self-taken taken cervical samples when compared to clinician-taken cervical samples 20, Screening guidelines recommend a balance between costs and benefits.

One potential excess of HPV primary screening is an increased number of unnecessary colposcopies.

Predictive value of HPV p53 and p16 in the prognosis of oropharyngeal cancer. Source: ORL. The increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancers has led the medical scientific world to look for new etiologies, in addition to the traditional ones alcohol and tobacco consumption.

These will increase the cost of screening and will generate patient anxiety. To improve specificity and reduce overreferral to colposcopy, triage tests are needed to identify the persistent infections and the potential association with the development of cancer.

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A triage approach would include reflex cytology for all women positive for the other 12 HR-HPV Cobas test in order to select women who will be referred for colposcopy instead of sending all HR-HPV positive women. Without a triage approach, HPV primary screening would recommend approximately a double number of colposcopies compared to cytology.

Conclusions and recommendations Romania has the highest rate of mortality due to cervical cancer in Europe and has no national screening program to prevent cervical cancer.

The opportunist screening is substantial in urban area, but does not cover the rural areas. The explanations for this situation are represented by lack of coordinating infrastructure, the lack of human resources cytopathologiststhe subjective reading of cytology slides by cytopathologists, the lack of quality control, the lack of involvement of family doctors in screening, and the lack of report and data collection.

The 2nd edition human papillomavirus treatment guidelines the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening established the principles of an organized screening program 6, These principles are: defining a target population women of years of age and screening intervals years if using cytology and years if using HR-HPV-test ; the use of a population-based registry and appropriate recruitment measures personal invitations, place and date where the screening test is taken ; the definition of the screening test; adequate facilities to perform this test; defined management algorithms, and the monitoring and evaluation of the process human papillomavirus treatment guidelines of the impact of screening There are many examples proving that HPV primary screening could be preferred to the human papillomavirus treatment guidelines models of screening.

Among the advantages of HPV primary strategy, there can be mentioned: the test is automated and the interpretation is objective; it is cheaper than cytology; extended screening interval to 5 years; higher sensitivity; higher negative predictive value.

The old infrastructure based on the Pap smears is no more functional, there are fewer cytopathologists and no more public warning campaigns against cervical cancer.

The best example of implementation of a successful screening program based on HPV primary testing is offered by Turkey The decision to implement a new policy of cervical cancer screening, replacing the existing one based on cytology, is a political one. The first step is to design and write a project describing the protocol of HPV primary screening. One of the most important decisions is to have one or two nationwide centralized diagnostics laboratories and a sustainable agreement with the human papillomavirus treatment guidelines industry.

Family doctors must be involved in the screening program and trained accordingly theoretical training and hands-out practice. Well-defined algorithms must be written in the protocol. A network of referral centers for colposcopy and treatment of precursors lesions must be established.

All the post-screening data colposcopy, final pathology must be collected in the institutional registry and sent to regional centers and then to the national registry for cancer.